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  1. Secretary of State correspondence, as reported in: Jackson, Angie. “Penalized for being poor: Michigan drivers could get break on license suspensions.” Detroit Free Press. August 1, 2020. https://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/2020/08/01/michigan-drivers-license-suspensions/4819150002/; “Impacted Population.” Free to Drive. Accessed July 2020. https://www.freetodrive.org/maps/#page-content.
  2. Craven, James. Driver’s License Suspension Reform: The Right Road for Michigan. Reason Foundation, 2018. https://reason.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/michigan-suspended-drivers-license-reform.pdf. Analyzed data reported in Best Practices Guide to Reducing Suspended Drivers. American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators, 2013. https://www.aamva.org/Suspended-and-Revoked-Drivers-Working-Group/.
  3. Michigan Legislature. House. HB 5846. Introduced June 11, 2020. http://www.legislature.mi.gov/documents/2019-2020/billintroduced/House/pdf/2020-HIB-5846.pdf.
  4. Report and Recommendations. Michigan: Michigan Joint Task Force on Jail and Pretrial Incarceration, 2020. https://courts.michigan.gov/News-Events/Documents/final/Jails%20Task%20Force%20Final%20Report%20and%20Recommendations.pdf.
  5. State Court Administrative Office. “Recommended ranges for fines and costs for civil infractions: For first-time offenders, responsibility admitted, non-accident violations.” Table pursuant to Michigan Compiled Law § 257.907(8), 2019. https://courts.michigan.gov/Administration/SCAO/Resources/Documents/other/fc_ci.pdf.
  6. MCL § 257.321a(1).
  7. Michigan State Police. “Traffic Stop Data.” Michigan State Police: Transparency and Accountability, 2020. https://www.michigan.gov/msp/0,4643,7-123-1586_101168-534265–,00.html.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Whren v. United States, 517 U.S. 806 (1996); Chowning, Jade, Erin Keith and Geoffrey Leonard. Highway Robbery: How Metro Detroit Cops & Courts Steer Segregation and Drive Incarceration. Detroit: Detroit Justice Center, 2020. https://www.detroitjustice.org/highwayrobbery.
  10. As a result of the settlement in Fowler v. Johnson, starting in February 2021, traffic citations will explicitly state: “If you are not able to pay any fine or costs due to financial hardship, contact the court immediately to request a payment alternative.” This does not guarantee that an alternative will be provided; legislative change is necessary for additional reform.
  11. Salas, Mario and Angela Ciolfi. Driven by Dollars: A State-By-State Analysis of Driver’s License Suspension Laws for Failure to Pay Court Debt. Virginia: Legal Aid Justice Center, 2020.   https://www.justice4all.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Driven-by-Dollars.pdf.
  12. MCL § 257.321a(5) and MCL § 257.320e(1).
  13. U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey. 2018 1-Year Estimates. Generated August 2020.
  14. Annie E. Casey Foundation. “Median family income among households with children by race and ethnicity in Michigan.” Kids Count Data Center. Accessed August 2020. https://datacenter.kidscount.org/.
  15. U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey. 2018 1-Year Estimates. Generated August 2020.
  16. Ruark, Peter. “Spotlight on Michigan.” Michigan League for Public Policy, 2020. https://mlpp.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/2020-michigan-pgs-1-and-2.pdf.
  17. Best Practices Guide to Reducing Suspended Drivers. American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators, 2013.
  18. Report and Recommendations. Michigan Joint Task Force on Jail and Pretrial Incarceration, 2020.
  19. MCL § 257.904.
  20. Pew Charitable Trusts. “Michigan Joint Task Force on Jail and Pretrial Incarceration Meeting #3.” PowerPoint, slide 41, 2019. https://web.archive.org/web/20191015174003/https://courts.michigan.gov/News-Events/Documents/September%20Presentation%20Final_2019-9-19.pdf.

 

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